Language

Stammering

Palin Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for young children (0-7) who stammer

The Michael Palin Centre is an internationally recognised centre for excellence in the field of stammering, credited with the exposition of the multifactorial model of stammering as well as Palin Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. The multifactorial model explains stammering as a phenomenon that does not have a single cause, but occurs because of several contributing factors. These include physiological, psychological, linguistic (speech and language), and environmental factors.

Comprehensive assessment of a child who stammers should explore each of these factors. The resultant formulation should aim to highlight factors contributing towards a child’s stammer that can be changed. Palin Parent-Child Interaction Therapy provides parents with the opportunity to reflect on their interaction with their child during free-play using short video recordings made during each session. Thorough discussion with the SLT parents learn to positively affect their child’s communication environment, while the young person experiences more opportunities to be fluent.

The programme involves an initial assessment, a 6 week period of direct therapy, a 6 week consolidation period where parents implement what has been learned at home, followed by a review session on the 12th week. A longitudinal study (Millard, Nicholas & Cook; 2008) has demonstrated the effectiveness of Palin Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for child who have stammered for 12 months or more.

 

References

Millard, S. K., Nicholas, A., & Cook, F. M. (2008). Is parent–child interaction therapy effective in reducing stuttering?. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research51(3), 636-650.

 

http://www.stammeringcentre.org/mpc-home

Typical Ages Of Elimination For Sound Errors (Phonological Processes)

Below you will find descriptions of phonological processes (a pattern of sound error(s)) a typical child will use. This includes an example, and the approximate age (years;months) at which these processes will stop being used.

  • Pre-vocalic voicing:        pig = big        3;0
  • Word-final de-voicing:       pig = pick        3;0
  • Final consonant deletion:    comb = coe        3;3
  • Fronting:       car = tar        3;6
  • Consonant harmony:       mine = mime        3;9
  • Weak syllable deletion:        elephant = efant    4;0
  • Cluster reduction:        spoon = poon        4;0
  • Gliding of liquids:        run = one        5;0
  • Stopping /f/:            fish = tish        3;0
  • Stopping /s/ :          soap = dope        3;0
  • Stopping /v/ :           very = berry        3;6
  • Stopping /z/:            zoo = doo        3;6
  • Stopping 'sh' :           shop = dop        4;6
  • Stopping 'j':            jump = dump        4;6
  • Stopping 'ch':            chair = tare        4;6
  • Stopping voiceless 'th':        thing = ting        5;0
  • Stopping voiced 'th' :       them = dem        5;0

If you are concerned about your child’s speech or language development, please email for free advice: speech-language-therapist@outlook.com 

Alternatively, please see our fixed fee assessment which may meet your needs

References

  • Bowen, C. (2011). Table 3: Elimination of Phonological Processes. Retrieved from http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/ on 16/01/2016.
  • Bowen, C. (1998). Developmental phonological disorders. A practical guide for families and teachers. Melbourne: ACER Press.
  • Grunwell, P. (1997). Natural phonology. In M. Ball & R. Kent (Eds.), The new phonologies: Developments in clinical linguistics. San Deigo, CA: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.

Phonological Processes In Typical Development

As children learn to speak, they tend to use some different sound errors or patterns as they are not yet able to use all the sounds in all the different word positions that most adults can use. These are called phonological processes. As they get older, these typically disappear as they become more able to pronounce all the words they need to use correctly. For the typical ages that phonological processes are gone by, please click here.

Below, the name of the phonological process is given, along with an example and a description of what is happening to create the process. 

  • Pre-vocalic voicing:    car = gar    A voiceless sound preceding a vowel is replaced by a voiced sound.
  • Word final devoicing:    red = ret    A final voiced consonant is replaced by a voiceless consonant
  • Final consonant deletion:    boat = bo    A final consonant is omitted (deleted) from a word.
  • Velar fronting:    car = tar    A back sound is replaced by a front sound.
  • Palatal fronting:    ship = sip    sh or zh are replaced b y s or z respectively
  • Consonant harmony:    cup = pup    The pronunciation of a word is influenced by one of the sounds it 'should' contain.
  • Weak syllable deletion:    telephone = teffone    Weak (unstressed) syllables are deleted from words of more than one syllable.
  • Cluster reduction:    try = ty    A cluster element is deleted or replaced.
  • Gliding of liquids:    ladder = wadder    Liquids are replaced by glides.
  • Stopping:    ship = tip    A stop consonant replaces a fricative or affricate.

If you are concerned about your child’s speech or language development, please email for free advice: speech-language-therapist@outlook.com 

Alternatively, please see our fixed fee assessment which may meet your needs

References

  • Bowen, C. (2011). Table 2: Phonological Processess. Retrieved from http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/ on 16/01/2016.

Typical Stages Of Language Development

January 26, 2016

Receptive Language
Receptive language development refers to how children develop listening skills and an understanding of the language they are hearing. 

Birth
Language learning starts at birth. Even new babies are aware of the sounds in the environment. They listen to the speech of those close to them, and startle or cry if there is an unexpected noise. Loud noises wake them, and they become "still" in response to new sounds.

0-3 months
Between 0-3 months babies learn to turn to you when you speak, and smile when they hear your voice. In fact, they seem to recognise your familiar voice, and will quieten at the sound of it if they are crying. Tiny babies under three months will also stop their activity and listen closely to the sound of an unfamiliar voice. They will often respond to comforting tones whether the voice is familiar or not.
 
4-6 months
Between 4 to 6 months babies respond to the word "no". They are also responsive to changes in your tone of voice, and to sounds other than speech. For example, they can be fascinated by toys and other objects that make sounds, enjoy music and rhythm, and look in an interested or apprehensive way for the source of all sorts of new sounds such as the toaster, birdsong and the whirr of machines.

7-12 months
During the 7 to 12 month timeframe, the baby will listen when spoken to, turns and looks at your face when called by name, and discovers the fun of games like "peep-oh" and "pat-a-cake". They will begin to recognise the names of familiar objects ("Daddy", "car", "eyes", "phone", "key") and begin to respond to requests ("Give it to Granny") and questions ("More juice?").
 
1-2 years
Now your child points to pictures in a book when you name them, and can point to a few body parts when asked (nose, eyes, tummy). He or she can also follow simple commands ("Push the bus!", "Don't touch; it's hot!") and understand simple questions ("Where's the toy?" "Who likes chocolate?", "What's in your bag?"). Your toddler now likes listening to simple stories and enjoys it when you sing songs or say rhymes. This is a stage in which he or she will want the same story, rhyme or game repeated many times.

2-3 years
By now your toddler will understand two stage commands ("Get your coat and put your shoes on") and understand contrasting concepts or meanings like hot / cold / stop / go / in / on and nice. He or she notices sounds like the telephone or doorbell ringing and may point or become excited, get you to answer, or attempt to answer themselves.

3-4 years
Your three or four year old understands simple "Who?", "What?" and "Where?" questions, and can hear you when you call from another room. This is an age where hearing difficulties may become evident. If you are in doubt about your child's hearing, speak to your GP who will refer you to a clinical audiologist.

4-5 years
Children in this age range enjoy stories and can answer simple questions about them. He or she hears and understands nearly everything that is said (within reason) at home or at pre-school or day care. 
 
Expressive Language
Expressive language refers to how children learn to speak and use Language

Birth
Newborn babies make sounds that let others know that they are experiencing pleasure or pain.

0-3 months
Your baby smiles at you when you come into view. He or she repeats the same sound a lot and "coos and goos" when content. The baby uses a different cry for different situations to help you differentiate between what they need. For example, one cry says "I'm hungry" and another says "I have a pain".

4-6 months
Gurgling sounds or "vocal play" occur while you are playing with your baby or when they are occupying themselves happily. Babbling really gets going in this age range, and your baby will sometimes sound as though he or she is talking. This speech-like babbling includes many sounds, often these are bilabial (two-lip) sounds e.g. 'p', 'b' and 'm'. They also use different pitches. Your baby can tell you, using sounds or gestures that they want something, or want you to do something. He or she can use very "urgent" noises and facial expressions to spur you into action.

7-12 months
The sound of your baby's babbling changes. This is because it now includes more consonants, as well as long and short vowels. He or she uses speech and/or sounds other than crying to get your attention and hold on to it. Your baby's first words may be spoken (they may not be very clear yet). Examples of typical first words are: "MaMa", "Doggie", "Night Night", "Bye Bye", "No")

1-2 years
Now your baby is accumulating more words as each month passes. He or she will even ask 2-word questions like "Where ball?" "What's that?" "More choc", and combine two words in other ways to make other sentence types ("Birdie go", "No doggie", "More push"). Words are becoming clearer as more initial consonants are used.

2-3 years
Your two or three year old's vocabulary is increasing quickly. He or she seems to have a word for almost everything. Utterances are usually one, two or three words long and family members can usually understand them. Your toddler may ask for, or draw your attention to something by naming it ("Dog") or one of its attributes ("Red!") or by commenting ("Wow!").
 
3-4 years
Sentences are becoming longer as your child can combine four or more words. He or she talks about things that have happened away from home, and is interested in talking about pre-school, friends, outings and interesting experiences. Speech is usually fluent and clear and people outside of the family can understand what your child is saying most of the time. 

4-5 years
Your child speaks clearly and fluently in an easy-to-listen-to voice. He or she can construct long and detailed sentences ("We went to the zoo but we had to come home early because Sally wasn't feeling well". He or she can tell a long, involved imaginative story sticking to the topic, and using "adult-like" grammar. Most sounds are pronounced correctly, though he or she may be lisping as a four year old, or, at five, still have difficulty with "r", "v" and "th".
Your child can communicate easily with familiar adults and with other children. Your child may tell fantastic, dramatic, inventive, "tall stories" and engage strangers in conversation when you are out together.
 
If you are concerned about your child’s speech or language development, please email for free advice: speech-language-therapist@outlook.com

Alternatively, please see our fixed fee assessment which may meet your needs

References

  • Bowen, C. (1998). Ages and Stages Summary: Language Development 0-5 years. Retrieved from http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/ on

The Difference Between 'Speech' And 'Language' Impairments

Speech
‘Speech’ refers to the sounds we make when we are talking. We put strings of sounds together to create words. For example, ‘Cat’ is made up of 3 sounds – C, A and T. The number of sounds in a word does not necessarily correspond to the number of letters when spelling the word. For example, ‘Fright’ is made up of the sounds F, R, I and T (the ‘I’ would be pronounced like ‘eye’).


Different sounds develop at different ages, for example, ‘m’ is typically acquired at around 3 years old, whereas ‘v’ is not typically acquired until 6 years, and ‘th’ until 8 years (Kilminster & Laird, 1978). Children initially will not be able to produce certain sounds, or produce all the sounds in a longer word and so employ phonological processes e.g. saying ‘lectic’ for ‘electric’ or always producing ‘k’ as ‘t’. For more information on phonological processes used in typical development, see here: LINK. All children employ phonological processes up to a certain age. Norms for elimination of phonological processes can be found here: LINK.


Speech Sound Disorder (SSD) is an umbrella term referring to slow development of, or a difficulty with, speech development. An SSD could include articulation disorder, phonological disorder, childhood apraxia of speech and motor-speech disorders. If a child has a speech sound disorder, they may have difficulty producing certain sounds past the age at which those sounds would typically have been acquired. They may use a pattern of sound errors (phonolocial processes) past the age at which this may be typical. A child may be unable to coordinate the sounds needed to make up words, or have a structural or neurological reason that they cannot produce all of the sounds we use when we are talking.


A child may also have difficulty processing certain sounds; this will inevitably lead to difficulty producing that sound. This could have different causes e.g. glue ear, or an Auditory Processing Disorder. 


A Speech and Language Therapist will assess your child’s ability to process and produce a full range of speech sounds to identify how to best target any difficulties in therapy. They may use a formal assessment such as the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) (Dodd et. al., 2002). For further information on the DEAP, see here: LINK.

Language
Language refers to the meaning of the words we use. When we talk, we string words together into sentences to convey meaning. We also listen to other people’s sentences to understand what they are telling us. Children move through language development milestones, however there will of course be some variation between them. Norms for language development can be found here: LINK


Children may have a language delay if they do not achieve language norms within the expected time-frame. Children may also be diagnosed with ‘Specific Language Impairment’; this is where language is below the expected level in relation to a child’s academic abilities in the absence of general learning difficulty, hearing impairment, autism spectrum condition or anything else that could explain their language difficulty.


A Speech and Language Therapist will assess your child for language impairment. They may use a formal assessment such as the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) (Semel et. al., 2006), along with speaking to the child’s parents and teachers. They may also observe the child in different settings. They will use the information gained in assessment to inform their therapy plan.


If you are concerned about your child’s speech or language development, please email for free advice: speech-language-therapist@outlook.com
 

Alternatively, please see our fixed fee assessment which may meet your needs.

References

  • Bowen, C. (1998). Ages and Stages Summary: Language Development 0-5 years. Retrieved from http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/ on[insert the date that you retrieved the file here].
  • CELF
  • Kilminster, M.G.E., & Laird, E.M. (1978) Articulation development in children aged three to nine years. Australian Journal of Human Communication Disorders, 6, 1, 23-30.
  • Bowen, C. (2011). Table 2: Phonological Processess. Retrieved from http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/ on [insert the date that you retrieved the file here].
  • Bowen, C. (2011). Table 3: Elimination of Phonological Processes. Retrieved from http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/ on [insert the date that you retrieved the file here].
  • DEAP

CONTACT SPEECH AND LANGUAGE THERAPIST FOR ADVICE

BOOK ASSESSMENT WITH SPEECH AND LANGUAGE THERAPIST

List Of Adjectives

An adjective's job is to modify a noun or pronoun. They are always near the noun or pronoun they are describing. 

Appearance Adjectives
adorable
beautiful
clean
drab
elegant
fancy
glamorous
handsome
long
magnificent
old-fashioned
plain
quaint
sparkling
ugliest
unsightly
wide-eyed

Colour Adjectives
red
orange
yellow
green
blue
purple
gray
black
white

Condition Adjectives
alive
better
careful
clever
dead
easy
famous
gifted
helpful
important
nexpensive
mushy
odd
powerful
rich
shy
tender
uninterested
vast
wrong.

Bad Feelings Adjectives
angry
bewildered
clumsy
defeated
embarrassed
fierce
grumpy
helpless
itchy
jealous
Lazy
mysterious
nervous
obnoxious
panicky
repulsive
scary
thoughtless
uptight
worried

 

Good Feelings Adjectives
agreeable
brave
calm
delightful
eager
faithful
gentle
happy
jolly
kind
lively
nice
obedient
proud
relieved
silly
thankful
victorious
witty
zealous

Shape Adjectives
broad
chubby
crooked
curved
deep
flat
high
hollow
low
narrow
round
shallow
skinny
square
steep
straight
wide.

Size Adjectives
big
colossal
fat
gigantic
great
huge
immense
large
little
mammoth
massive
miniature
petite
puny
scrawny
short
small
tall
teeny
teeny-tiny
tiny

Sound Adjectives
cooing
deafening
faint
hissing
loud
melodic
noisy
purring
quiet
raspy
screeching
thundering
voiceless
whispering

Time Adjectives
ancient
brief
early
late
fast
long
modern
old
old-fashioned
quick
rapid
short
slow
swift
young

Taste/Touch Adjectives
bitter
delicious
fresh
greasy
juicy
hot
icy
loose
melted
nutritious
prickly
rainy
rotten
salty
sticky
strong
sweet
tart
tasteless
uneven
weak
wet
wooden
yummy

Touch Adjectives
boiling
breeze
broken
bumpy
chilly
cold
cool
creepy
crooked
cuddly
curly
damaged
damp
dirty
dry
dusty
filthy
flaky
fluffy
freezing
hot
warm
wet

Quantity Adjectives
abundant
empty
few
full
heavy
light
many
numerous
substantial
sparse

List Of Nouns

List of Nouns
 

Using a list of nouns when children are beginning to read is helpful in making teaching easier. Nouns are one of the first parts of speech that children learn when they begin to read. Use the following list of nouns for each age group to help your child learn about the ideas things, people and places that surround them.

Year R
ball
bat
bed
book
boy
bun
can
cake
cap
car
cat
cow
cub
cup
dad
day
dog
doll
dust
fan
feet
girl
gun
hall
hat
hen
jar
kite
man
map
men
mom
pan
pet
pie
pig
pot
rat
son
sun
toe
tub
van

Year 1
apple
arm
banana
bike
bird
book
chin
clam
class
clover
club
corn
crayon
crow
crown
crowd
crib
desk
dime
dirt
dress
fang
field
flag
flower
fog
game
heat
hill
home
horn
hose
joke
juice
kite
lake
maid
mask
mice
milk
mint
meal
meat
moon
mother
morning
name
nest
nose
pear
pen
pencil
plant
rain
river
road
rock
room
rose
seed
shape
shoe
shop
show
sink
snail
snake
snow
soda
sofa
star
step
stew
stove
straw
string
summer
swing
table
tank
team
tent
test
toes
tree
vest
water
wing
winter
woman
women

Year 2
alarm
animal
aunt
bait
balloon
bath
bead
beam
bean
bedroom
boot
bread
brick
brother
camp
chicken
children
crook
deer
dock
doctor
downtown
drum
dust
eye
family
father
fight
flesh
food
frog
goose
grade
grandfather
grandmother
grape
grass
hook
horse
jail
jam
kiss
kitten
light
loaf
lock
lunch
lunchroom
meal
mother
notebook
owl
pail
parent
park
plot
rabbit
rake
robin
sack
sail
scale
sea
sister
soap
song
spark
space
spoon
spot
spy
summer
tiger
toad
town
trail
tramp
tray
trick
trip
uncle
vase
winter
water
week
wheel
wish
wool
yard
zebra

Year 3
actor
airplane
airport
army
baseball
beef
birthday
boy
brush
bushes
butter
cast
cave
cent
cherries
cherry
cobweb
coil
cracker
dinner
eggnog
elbow
face
fireman
flavor
gate
glove
glue
goldfish
goose
grain
hair
haircut
hobbies
holiday
hot
jellyfish
ladybug
mailbox
number
oatmeal
pail
pancake
pear
pest
popcorn
queen
quicksand
quiet
quilt
rainstorm
scarecrow
scarf
stream
street
sugar
throne
toothpaste
twig
volleyball
wood
wrench

Year 4
advice
anger
answer
apple
arithmetic
badge
basket
basketball
battle
beast
beetle
beggar
brain
branch
bubble
bucket
cactus
cannon
cattle
celery
cellar
cloth
coach
coast
crate
cream
daughter
donkey
drug
earthquake
feast
fifth
finger
flock
frame
furniture
geese
ghost
giraffe
governor
honey
hope
hydrant
icicle
income
island
jeans
judge
lace
lamp
lettuce
marble
month
north
ocean
patch
plane
playground
poison
riddle
rifle
scale
seashore
sheet
sidewalk
skate
slave
sleet
smoke
stage
station
thrill
throat
throne
title
toothbrush
turkey
underwear
vacation
vegetable
visitor
voyage
year

Year 5
able
achieve
acoustics
action
activity
aftermath
afternoon
afterthought
apparel
appliance
beginner
believe
bomb
border
boundary
breakfast
cabbage
cable
calculator
calendar
caption
carpenter
cemetery
channel
circle
creator
creature
education
faucet
feather
friction
fruit
fuel
galley
guide
guitar
health
heart
idea
kitten
laborer
language
lawyer
linen
locket
lumber
magic
minister
mitten
money
mountain
music
partner
passenger
pickle
picture
plantation
plastic
pleasure
pocket
police
pollution
railway
recess
reward
route
scene
scent
squirrel
stranger
suit
sweater
temper
territory
texture
thread
treatment
veil
vein
volcano
wealth
weather
wilderness
wren
wrist
writer

General List of Common Nouns
account
achiever
acoustics
act
action
activity
actor
addition
adjustment
advertisement
advice
aftermath
afternoon
afterthought
agreement
air
airplane
airport
alarm
amount
amusement
anger
angle
animal
answer
ant
apparatus
apparel
apple
apples
appliance
approval
arch
argument
arithmetic
arm
army
art
attack
attempt
attention
attraction
aunt
authority

babies
baby
back
badge
bag
bait
balance
balloon
ball
balls
banana
band
base
baseball
basin
basket
basketball
bat
bath
battle
bead
beam
bean
bear
bears
beast
bed
bedroom
beds
bee
beef
beetle
beggar
beginner
behavior
belief
believe
bell
bells
berry
bike
bikes
bird
birds
birth
birthday
bit
bite
blade
blood
blow
board
boat
boats
body
bomb
bone
book
books
boot
border
bottle
boundary
box
boy
boys
brain
brake
branch
brass
bread
breakfast
breath
brick
bridge
brother
brothers
brush
bubble
bucket
building
bulb
bun
burn
burst
bushes
business
butter

cabbage
cable
cactus
cake
cakes
calculator
calendar
camera
camp
can
cannon
canvas
cap
caption
car
card
care
carpenter
carriage
cars
cart
cast
cats
cattle
cat
cause
cave
celery
cellar
cemetery
cent
chain
chair
chairs
chalk
chance
change
channel
cheese
cherries
cherry
chess
chicken
children
chin
church
circle
clam
class
clock
clocks
cloth
cloud
clouds
clover
club
coach
coal
chickens
coast
coat
cobweb
coil
collar
color
comb
comfort
committee
company
comparison
competition
condition
connection
control
cook
copper
copy
cord
cork
corn
cough
country
cover
cow
cows
crack
cracker
crate
crayon
cream
creator
creature
credit
crib
crime
crook
crow
crowd
crown
crush
cry
cub
cup
current
curtain
curve
cushion 

dad
daughter
day
death
debt
decision
deer
degree
design
desire
desk
destruction
detail
development
digestion
dime
dinner
dinosaurs
direction
dirt
discovery
disgust
distance
distribution
division
dock
doctor
dog
dogs
doll
dolls
donkey
disease
discussion
door
downtown
drain
drawer
dress
drink
driving
drop
drug
drum
duck
ducks
dust

ear
earth
earthquake
edge
education
effect
egg
eggnog
eggs
elbow
end
engine
error
event
example
exchange
existence
expansion
experience
expert
eye
eyes

face
fact
fairies
fall
family
fan
fang
farm
farmer
father
father
faucet
fear
feast
feather
feeling
feet
fiction
field
fifth
fight
finger
finger
fire
fireman
fish
flag
flame
flavor
flesh
flight
flock
floor
flower
flowers
fly
fog
fold
food
foot
force
fork
form
fowl
frame
friction
friend
friends
frog
frogs
front
fruit
fuel
furniture

game
garden
gate
geese
ghost
giants
giraffe
girl
girls
glass
glove
glue
goat
gold
goldfish
good-bye
goose
government
governor
grade
grain
grandfather
grandmother
grape
grass
grip
ground
group
growth
guide
guitar
gun

hair
haircut
hall
hammer
hand
hands
harbor
harmony
hat
hate
head
health
hearing
heart
heat
help
hen
hill
history
hobbies
hole
holiday
home
honey
hook
hope
horn
horse
horses
hose
hospital
hot
hour
house
houses
humor
hydrant

ice
icicle
idea
impulse
income
increase
industry
ink
insect
instrument
insurance
interest
invention
iron
island

jail
jam
jar
jeans
jelly
jellyfish
jewel
join
joke
journey
judge
juice
jump

kettle
key
kick
kiss
kite
kitten
kittens
kitty
knee
knife
knot
knowledge

laborer
lace
ladybug
lake
lamp
land
language
laugh
lawyer
lead
leaf
learning
leather
leg
legs
letter
letters
lettuce
level
library
lift
light
limit
line
linen
lip
liquid
list
lizards
loaf
lock
locket
look
loss
love
low
lumber
lunch
lunchroom

machine
magic
maid
mailbox
man
manager
map
marble
mark
market
mask
mass
match
meal
measure
meat
meeting
memory
men
metal
mice
middle
milk
mind
mine
minister
mint
minute
mist
mitten
mom
money
monkey
month
moon
morning
mother
motion
mountain
mouth
move
muscle
music

nail
name
nation
neck
need
needle
nerve
nest
net
news
night
noise
north
nose
note
notebook
number
nut

oatmeal
observation
ocean
offer
office
oil
operation
opinion
orange
oranges
order
organization
ornament
oven
owl
owner
page

pail
pain
paint
pan
pancake
paper
parcel
parent
park
part
partner
party
passenger
paste
patch
payment
peace
pear
pen
pencil
person
pest
pet
pets
pickle
picture
pie
pies
pig
pigs
pin
pipe
pizzas
place
plane
planes
plant
plantation
plants
plastic
plate
play
playground
pleasure
plot
plough
pocket
point
poison
police
polish
pollution
popcorn
porter
position
pot
potato
powder
power
price
print
prison
process
produce
profit
property
prose
protest
pull
pump
punishment
purpose
push

quarter
quartz
queen
question
quicksand
quiet
quill
quilt
quince
quiver

rabbit
rabbits
rail
railway
rain
rainstorm
rake
range
rat
rate
ray
reaction
reading
reason
receipt
recess
record
regret
relation
religion
representative
request
rest
reward
rhythm
rice
riddle
rifle
ring
rings
river
road
robin
rock
rod
roll
roof
room
root
rose
route
rub
rule
run

sack
sail
salt
sand
scale
scarecrow
scarf
scene
scent
school
science
scissors
screw
sea
seashore
seat
secretary
seed
selection
self
sense
servant
shade
shake
shame
shape
sheep
sheet
shelf
ship
shirt
shock
shoe
shoes
shop
show
side
sidewalk
sign
silk
silver
sink
sister
sisters
size
skate
skin
skirt
sky
slave
sleep
sleet
slip
slope
smash
smell
smile
smoke
snail
snails
snake
snakes
sneeze
snow
soap
society
sock
soda
sofa
son
song
songs
sort
sound
soup
space
spade
spark
spiders
sponge
spoon
spot
spring
spy
square
squirrel
stage
stamp
star
start
statement
station
steam
steel
stem
step
stew
stick
sticks
stitch
stocking
stomach
stone
stop
store
story
stove
stranger
straw
stream
street
stretch
string
structure
substance
sugar
suggestion
suit
summer
sun
support
surprise
sweater
swim
swing
system

table
tail
talk
tank
taste
tax
teaching
team
teeth
temper
tendency
tent
territory
test
texture
theory
thing
things
thought
thread
thrill
throat
throne
thumb
thunder
ticket
tiger
time
tin
title
toad
toe
toes
tomatoes
tongue
tooth
toothbrush
toothpaste
top
touch
town
toy
toys
trade
trail
trees
trick
trip
trouble
trousers
truck
trucks
tub
turkey
turn
twig
twist
train
trains
tramp
transport
tray
treatment
tree

umbrella
uncle
underwear
unit
use

vacation
value
van
vase
vegetable
veil
vein
verse
vessel
vest
view
visitor
voice
volcano
volleyball
voyage

walk
wall
war
wash
waste
watch
water
wave
waves
wax
way
wealth
weather
week
weight
wheel
whip
whistle
wilderness
wind
window
wine
wing
winter
wire
wish
woman
women
wood
wool
word
work
worm
wound
wren
wrench
wrist
writer
writing

yak
yam
yard
yarn
year
yoke

zebra
zephyr
zinc
zipper
zoo

List Of Prepositions

English speakers use prepositions in both formal and everyday communication. Without them, the English language would sound short and choppy. If you have a child starting grammar lessons, read through the list of prepositions and take a quick refresher class on prepositions.

Prepositions connect nouns, pronouns, and phrases with other words in a sentence. It gives information about location, direction, space, or time. Prepositions are usually part of a phrase because they often have a noun or pronoun after them. Here are two examples of prepositions in sentences.

The dog jumped over the fence. 

 

I will go to the doctor.
 

The main job of prepositions is to create relationships between words. How is the dog related to the fence? It jumped over the fence. How am I related to the doctor? I am going to the doctor
 

Prepositional phrases can also act like adverbs or adjectives. Remember that adverbs describe verbs (actions and being), and adjectives describe nouns and pronouns (ideas, people, places, and things).
 

As an adverb - The children crossed the street with caution.
The prepositional phrase "with caution" describes the way the children crossed the street.
As an adjective - He lives in the house with the red roof.

 

The prepositional phrase "with the red roof" describes the house in a specific way.
 

Children will see prepositions in their early reader books. In Kindergarten and first grade, children are focused on word recognition and reading skills. Basic sentence structure is taught, but it is too early for children that young to learn parts of speech. Below is a list of prepositions new readers can recognize easily:
 
List of Basic Prepositions
as
at
but
by
down
for
from
in
into
like
near
next
of
off
on
onto
out
over
past
plus
minus
since
than
to
up
with

As reading skills develop people will learn the spelling and definitions of more complex words. They are introduced to prepositions and other parts of speech between the second and fourth grade. The following list shows some more advanced prepositions:
 
List of Advanced Prepositions
aboard
about
above
across
after
against
along
around
before
behind
below
beneath
beside
between
beyond
during
except
following
inside
minus
onto
opposite
outside
round
since
through
toward
under
underneath
unlike
until
upon
without

As a students reading skills progress they are exposed to a variety of prepositions. This includes compound words and single words used in complex sentences.

according to
along with
alongside
among
apart from
as for
atop
because of
by means of
concerning
despite
except for
in addition to
in back of
in case of
in front of
in place of
in spite of
instead of
on top of
out of
regarding
throughout
till
up to
via
within
worth

Of course, the English language is full of exceptions. Some prepositions seem to break the rules, yet make sense in everyday language. These are called idioms. A few common examples include the following:

List of Idioms
according to
capable of
familiar with
impatient with
rewarded for
superior to
Prepositions are not always easy to identify in spoken and written language. However, they play a big part in making the English language colorful and interesting. Use this list of prepositions as a quick guide to help your student learn about prepositions. 
List of the Most Common Prepositions
aboard
about
above
absent
across
after
against
along
alongside
amid
amidst
among
anti
around
as
at
atop
before
behind
below
beneath
beside
besides
between
beyond
but
by
concerning
considering
despite
down
during
except
excepting
excluding
following
for
from
in
in front of
inside    
instead of
into
like
mid
minus    

near
next
of
off
on
on top of
onto
opposite
out of
outside
over
past
per
plus
regarding
round    
save
since
than
through
till
times
to
toward
towards
under
underneath
unlike
until
up
upon
versus
via
with
within
without

List Of Pronouns

A pronoun can be defined as a function word that is used instead of a noun or a noun phrase. Examples of such pronouns include I, you, he, she, it, this, him, who, me, my, among many others.

all
another
any
anybody
anyone
anything

both

each
each other
either
everybody
everyone
everything

few

he
her
hers
herself
him
himself
his

I
it
its
itself

little

many
me
mine
more
most
much
my
myself
 
neither
no one
nobody
none
nothing

one
one another
other
others
our
ours
ourselves

several
she
some
somebody
someone
something

that
their
theirs
them
themselves
these
they
this
those

us

we
what
whatever
which
whichever
who
whoever
whom
whomever
whose

you
your
yours
yourself
yourselves

List Of Verbs

abide
accelerate
accept
accomplish
achieve
acquire
acted
activate
adapt
add
address
administer
admire
admit
adopt
advise
afford
agree
alert
alight
allow
altered
amuse
analyze
announce
annoy
answer
anticipate
apologize
appear
applaud
applied
appoint
appraise
appreciate
approve
arbitrate
argue
arise
arrange
arrest
arrive
ascertain
ask
assemble
assess
assist
assure
attach
bounce crack
crash
crawl
create
creep
critique
cross
crush
cry
cure
curl
curve
cut
cycle


dam
damage
dance
dare
deal
decay
deceive
decide
decorate
define
delay
delegate
delight
deliver
demonstrate
depend
describe
desert
deserve
design
destroy
detail
detect
determine
develop
devise
diagnose
dig
direct
disagree
disappear
disapprove
disarm
discover
dislike
dispense
display
disprove
dissect
distribute
dive
identify
ignore
illustrate
imagine
implement
impress
improve
improvise
include
increase
induce
influence
inform
initiate
inject
injure
inlay
innovate
input
inspect
inspire
install
institute
instruct
insure
integrate
intend
intensify
interest
interfere
interlay
interpret
interrupt
interview
introduce
invent
inventory
investigate
invite
irritate
itch    




jail
jam
jog
join
joke
judge
juggle
jump
justify
    attack
attain
attempt
attend
attract
audited
avoid
awake


back
bake
balance
ban
bang
bare
bat
bathe
battle
be
beam
bear
beat
become
beg
begin
behave
behold
belong
bend
beset
bet
bid
bind
bite
bleach
bleed
bless
blind
blink
blot
blow
blush
boast
boil
bolt
bomb
book
bore
borrow


divert
divide
do
double
doubt
draft
drag
drain
dramatize
draw
dream
dress
drink
drip
drive
drop
drown
drum
dry
dust
dwell


earn
eat
edited
educate
eliminate
embarrass
employ
empty
enacted
encourage
end
endure
enforce
engineer
enhance
enjoy
enlist
ensure
enter
entertain
escape
establish
estimate
evaluate
examine
exceed
excite
excuse
execute
exercise
exhibit
exist
expand
keep
kept
kick
kill
kiss
kneel
knit
knock
knot
know    


label
land
last
laugh
launch
lay
lead
lean
leap
learn
leave
lecture
led
lend
let
level
license
lick
lie
lifted
light
lighten
like
list
listen
live
load
locate
lock
log
long
look
lose
love
    bow
box
brake
branch
break
breathe
breed
brief
bring
broadcast
bruise
brush
bubble
budget
build
bump
burn
burst
bury
bust
buy
buzz


calculate
call
camp
care
carry
carve
cast
catalog
catch
cause
challenge
change
charge
chart
chase
cheat
check
cheer
chew
choke
choose
chop
claim
clap
clarify
classify
clean
expect
expedite
experiment
explain
explode
express
extend
extract    
face
facilitate
fade
fail
fancy
fasten
fax
fear
feed
feel
fence
fetch
fight
file
fill
film
finalize
finance
find
fire
fit
fix
flap
flash
flee
fling
float
flood
flow
flower
fly
fold
follow
fool
forbid
force
forecast
forego
foresee
foretell
forget
forgive
form
formulate
forsake
frame
freeze
maintain
make
man
manage
manipulate
manufacture
map
march
mark
market
marry
match
mate
matter
mean
measure
meddle
mediate
meet
melt
melt
memorize
mend
mentor
milk
mine
mislead
miss
misspell
mistake
misunderstand
mix
moan
model
modify
monitor
moor
motivate
mourn
move
mow
muddle
mug
multiply
murder    
    clear
cling
clip
close
clothe
coach
coil
collect
color
comb
come
command
communicate
compare
compete
compile
complain
complete
compose
compute
conceive
concentrate
conceptualize
concern
conclude
conduct
confess
confront
confuse
connect
conserve
consider
consist
consolidate
construct
consult
contain
continue
contract
control
convert
coordinate
copy
correct
correlate
cost
cough
counsel
count
cover
frighten
fry


gather
gaze
generate
get
give
glow
glue
go
govern
grab
graduate
grate
grease
greet
grin
grind
grip
groan
grow
guarantee
guard
guess
guide
hammer
hand
handle
handwrite
hang
happen
harass
harm
hate
haunt
head
heal
heap
hear
heat
help
hide
hit
hold
hook
hop
hope
hover
hug
hum
hunt
hurry
hurt
hypothesize
nail
name
navigate
need
negotiate
nest
nod
nominate
normalize
note
notice
number


obey
object
observe
obtain
occur
offend
offer
officiate
open
operate
order
organize
oriented
originate
overcome
overdo
overdraw
overflow
overhear
overtake
overthrow
owe
own


pack
paddle
paint
park
part
participate
pass
paste
pat
pause
pay
peck
pedal
peel
peep
perceive
perfect


perform
permit
persuade
phone
photograph
pick
pilot
pinch
pine
pinpoint
pioneer
place
plan
plant
play
plead
please
plug
point
poke
polish
pop
possess
post
pour
practice
praised
pray
preach
precede
predict
prefer
prepare
prescribe
present
preserve
preset
preside
press
pretend
prevent
prick
print
process
procure
produce
profess
program
progress
project
promise
promote
proofread
propose
    protect
prove
provide
publicize
pull
pump
punch
puncture
punish
purchase
push
put


qualify
question
queue
quit race
radiate
rain
raise
rank
rate
reach
read
realign
realize
reason
receive
recognize
recommend
reconcile
record
recruit
reduce
refer
reflect
refuse
regret
regulate
rehabilitate
reign
reinforce
reject
rejoice
relate
relax
release
rely
remain
remember
remind
remove
render
reorganize
    repeat
replace
reply
report
represent
reproduce
request
rescue
research
resolve
respond
restored
restructure
retire
retrieve
return
review
revise
rhyme
rid
ride
ring
rinse
rise
risk
rob
rock
roll
rot
rub
ruin
rule
run
rush sack
sail
satisfy
save
saw
say
scare
scatter
schedule
scold
scorch
scrape
scratch
scream
screw
scribble
scrub
seal
search
secure
see
        select
sell
send
sense
separate
serve
service
set
settle
sew
shade
shake
shape
share
shave
shear
shed
shelter
shine
shiver
shock
shoe
shoot
shop
show
shrink
shrug
shut
sigh
sign
signal
simplify
sin
sing
sink
sip
sit
sketch
ski
skip
slap
slay
sleep
slide
sling
slink
slip
slit
slow
smash
smell
smile
smite
smoke


sneak
sneeze
sniff
snore
snow
soak
solve
soothe
soothsay
sort
sound
sow
spare
spark
sparkle
speak
specify
speed
spell
spend
spill
spin
spit
split
spoil
spot
spray
spread
spring
sprout
squash
squeak
squeal
squeeze
stain
stamp
stand
stare
start
stay
steal
steer
step
stick
stimulate
sting
stink
stir
stitch
stop
store
strap
streamline


    strengthen
stretch
stride
strike
string
strip
strive
stroke
structure
study
stuff
sublet
subtract
succeed
suck
suffer
suggest
suit
summarize
supervise
supply
support
suppose
surprise
surround
suspect
suspend
swear
sweat
sweep
swell
swim
swing
switch
symbolize
synthesize
systemize


tabulate
take
talk
tame
tap
target
taste
teach
tear
tease
telephone
tell
tempt
terrify
test
thank
    think
thrive
throw
thrust
tick
tickle
tie
time
tip
tire
touch
tour
tow
trace
trade
train
transcribe
transfer
transform
translate
transport
trap
travel
tread
treat
tremble
trick
thaw
trip
trot
trouble
troubleshoot
trust
try
tug
tumble
turn
tutor
twist
type


undergo
understand
undertake
undress
unfasten
unify
unite
unlock
unpack
untidy
update
upgrade
uphold
    upset
use
utilize


vanish
verbalize
verify
vex
visit
    
wail
wait
wake
walk
wander
want
warm
warn
wash
waste
watch
water
wave
wear
weave
wed
weep
weigh
welcome
wend
wet
whine
whip
whirl
whisper
whistle
win
wind
wink
wipe
wish
withdraw
withhold    
wobble
wonder
work
worry
wrap
wreck
wrestle
wriggle
wring
write

First 200 Words

200 Useful words

a
and
he
I
in
is
it
of
that
the

 to
was
as
all
at
be
but
are
for
had

 
 after
again
always
am
ask
another
any
away
bed
because

 
 best
bird
black
blue
boy
bring
day
dog
don’t
eat

 
 
have
him
his
not
on
one
said
so
they
we

 
 with
you
an
about
back
been
before
big
by
call

 
every
fast
father
tell
find
five
fly
four
found
gave

 
 girl
give
going good
got
green
hand
head
help
home

came
can
come
could
did
do
down
first
from
get go
has
here
her
if
into
just
like
little
look
 
house
how
jump
know
 keep
last
left
let
live
long
 
 man
many
may
men
mother
Mr.
never
next
once
open

 
 
made
 make
me
more
much
must
my
no
new
now

 
 off
only
often
or
other
out
over
right
see
she

 
 own
play
put
ran
read
red
room
round
run
sat

 
 saw
say
school
should
sing
sit
soon
stop
take
tell
 
 
some
than
there
them
  then
 there
 this
 two
want
when

 
 up
were
where
which
who
will
your
old
went
what

 
 well
these
thin
think
three
time
too
tree
under
us

 
 very

walk
white
why
wish
work
woman
would.
yes
year